The following brief essay provides an example of documentation form
that may be
used in this class.
THE EDICT OF NANTES: A NEW VIEW OF CHURCH-STATE RELATIONS
The Edict of
Nantes of 1598 introduced a new perspective on the relations between
church and state. Contrary to previous thinking, the decree implemented
the belief that
the government should not prescribe religious belief and conduct.
For most of the second
half of the 1500s civil conflict raged in France. These "French wars of
religion" (Hunt, 546)
pitted Calvinist protestants, called Huguenots, against Catholics, who
were supported by
the king of the Valois dynasty. Each side believed that if France was
to become a strong
kingdom, only one religion could be permitted within society (Stankiewicz,
last heir of the Valois dynasty, Henry III, was assassinated, the leader
of the Huguenots ascended the throne as Henry IV. Henry chiefly desired
that religious conflict
cease and tranquility return to France. Therefore he proclaimed himself
a Catholic, recognizing
the reality that more than ninety percent of the French people were Catholic
But subsequently he also gave the Huguenots freedom to practice their religion.
in the introduction to his edict that he thought his duty as king was
to guarantee civil peace
so that God "may be adored and prayed unto by all our subjects," and
that as long as they
agreed on this, it did not matter if people chose to be of different
religions (Nantes ).
Henry did not
quite succeed in introducing full religious liberty to France. The decree
permitted protestants to worship freely in many, but not all, parts of
France. But the king
obviously favored the Catholics by restoring Catholicism to all areas of
France and making
the extension of protestantism into purely Catholic areas illegal (Nantes
of Nantes signified the emergence of a new way of thinking in European
civilization. Earlier protestants and Catholics agreed that the stability
of a society required
religious conformity. But Henry adopted the contrary premise, that the
state's interest in
maintaining civil security and tranquility required that it assure that
people could practice
the religion they preferred.
Hunt, Lynn, Thomas Martin, Barbara Rosenwein, R. Po-chia Hsia, Bonnie
G. Smith. The
Challenge of the West (Lexington, Mass., 1995).
Nantes, Edict of (1598), in Roland Mousnier. The Assassination of Henry
IV (New York,
1973), 316-347, [http://www.stetson.edu/~psteeves/edictnantes.html],
on 21 August 1996.
"Nantes, Edict of" (1997) Britannica Online. [http://www.eb.com:180/cgi-bin/g?DocF=micro/415/10.html],
accessed on 6 January 1998.
Stankiewicz, W.J. Politics and Religion in Seventeenth-Century France
(Berkeley, Calif., 1960).
Explanation about this documentation system:
Within the text the citation identifies the source using a label that
is as short as possible,
while still being informative. Ordinarily this should be one word that
identifies the author
of the material you are citing.
Then in the "SOURCES" section the sources referenced by the in-text
citations are listed
alphabetically by the identifiers used. Generally the form used should
be "author, title,
location, date." The "location" of a printed source is the name of the
book or periodical in
which you found it; the "location" of an Internet source is the URL where
you found it. In
the case of printed sources, include the date of publication; for sources
found on the Internet,
in addition to the date of publication of the original (if available) it
is necessary to include
the date on which you accessed them (because Internet sources are liable