Copyrighted material. For private use only.


"Eurasia" movement organizes

by Nikolai Zimin
Sobornost, 22 April 2001

On Saturday Alexander Dugin conducted the founding congress of the new "Eurasia" Russia-wide Political Public Movement (OPOD). The presidium of the congress included representatives of the Russian Orthodox church, the mufti of Ingushetia, scholars, and veterans of intelligence services and law enforcements agencies. The official web site of the movement says that its founders are the Center of Geopolitical Study and the "Edinenia" Public Foundation for Joint Action for Peace and Cooperation in the Caucasus.

The leader of the movement is Alexander Dugin, the director of the Center of Geopolitical Study of the Expert Consultative Council on Problems of National Security, advisor to the chairman of the State Duma, author of the textbook "Foundations of Geopolitics," and philosopher who has developed the theory of neoeurasianism. He noted that the creation of the new movement has been facilitated by all those who have supported "the principle of the eurasian community." The ideology of the movement, in his words, "has been worked out through the suffering of the best people of Russia who founded the eurasian worldview, including Lev Gumilev."

The main point of the hour-long report by the director of OPOD was the  thesis that "Russia and the West are diverse civilizations between which contradictions were established long ago and will never disappear, and the basic law of geopolitics is 'either us or them,' inasmuch as 'no kind of merging with the western world can occur because the West has turned an angry face toward us," reports.  "We maintain the conception of a multipolar world and we will resist the unipolar globalism of USA," Alexander Dugin emphasized. In his words, "eurasianism is a profoundly patriotic idea that is far from chauvinism and xenophobia." The main source of all evil, Dugin says, is "the Atlantic factor."  In his words, he possesses "intelligence information that agents of CIA are now working in the Chechen opposition."

Dugin defined the point of the activity of "Eurasia" as "not the acquisition of authority but struggling for influence upon it." In particular, the movement intends to propose to the Russian president a draft for ending international conflict by means of "unification of fundamentalists, that is, profoundly believing people, who have experienced the uniqueness of their own faith." Dugin stressed that religious support for the movement has been shown by hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox church, Muslim clergy, and the Jewish community of Russia. "Muslims and Jews are not simply our parthers but our brothers," he declared.

At a press conference held on the eve of the congress Farid Salman, representative of Mufti Talgat Tajuddin, stressed:  "The 'Eurasia' movement is our answer to adherents of satanic wahhabism which has put down roots throughout the country and even in Moscow." In his opinion, "participation of Muslims in the movement is a sacred duty of patriotism and response to adherents of wahhabism, which discredits Islam."

Alexander Dugin himself views the future of the "Eurasia" movement with optimism. First, he explained, "with Putin's arrival the development of the eurasian initiative received the green light, as if by the wave of a magic wand; second, "'Eurasia' is diverse, including Russians, Tatars, youth, and military personnel;" and finally, "'Eurasia' comes first and everything else follows."

During the congress the members of the movement's Policy Council also were elected, its charter was approved, and resolutions were adopted. . . . As the slogan of the movement the congress participants selected Vladimir Putin's words:  "Russia is a eurasian country." The movement is prepared to participate in the election of 2003 not as a separate organization but in a bloc with pro-presidential forces. (tr. by PDS, posted 23 April 2001)

by Leonid Savchenko, 21 April 2001

Today at RIA "Novosti" there was a press conference at which it was announced that a new political force soon would appear in Russia. On 21 April the founding congress of the "Eurasia" All-Russian Political Public Movement will open. The agency identified among the leaders of the movement the philosopher and geopolitician Alexander Dugin, the supreme mufti of the Central Ecclesiastical Board of Muslims of Russia and European CIS Countries, Sheikh-ul-Islam Talgat Tajuddin, secretary of the Department of External Church Relations of the Moscow patriarchate, Fr Vsevolod Chaplin, and Rabbi Avrom Shmulevich. All of these various people are united by their support of the reforms of President Vladimir Putin and the ideology of "neoeurasianism."

On the web site of the "Eurasia" movement that is being created the following information about the leaders and participants of the new political formation is posted:

"The leader of the movement, Alexander Dugin, is the director of the Center of Geopolitical Study of the Expert Consultative Council on Problems of National Security, counselor to the chairman of the State Duma, author of the textbook "Foundations of Geopolitics," founder and developer of the modern Russian geopolitical school and theory of neoeurasianism, scholar, philosopher, author of numerous books published in Russia and abroad.

The founding institutions of the movement are the Center of Geopolitical Study and the "Edinenie" Public Foundation of Joint Action for Peace and Cooperation in the Caucasus.

The following are members of administrative bodies of the movement:

Supreme mufti of Russia, leader of the Central Ecclesiastical Board of Muslims, Sheikh-ul-Islam Talgat Tajuddin;
Chairman of the Department of Religious Education and Catechesis of the Russian Orthodox church, rector of the John the Divine Russian Orthodox University, Hegumen Ioann Ekonomtsev;
Did-Khambalama, superior (shereta) of the Aginsk Datsan, Dondukbaev Andrei Lupsandashievich;
Hassidic rabbi, leader of the "Bead Arzeinu" ("For the motherland") public political movement, historian, and well known publicist and public leader, Avrom Shmulevich;
Director of the Public Foundation for Joint Action for Peace and Cooperation in the Caucasus, Petr Evgenievich Suslov; and  others.

The movement was established on the principles of eurasianism, interconfessional harmony, eurasian federalism, standards of patriotism and social justice, and the historical  and geopolitical continuity among various historic forms of the Russian state, from Kievan Rus through Muscovite Rus and St. Petersburg Russia to soviet Russia and democratic Russia."

As stated at the press conference at RIA "Novosti" by the leader of the new movement, Alexander Dugin, the eurasian world view can aspire to the status of a national idea in modern Russia and therefore the necessity of the creation of the "Eurasia" movement arose. "Eurasia" was created "as a world view organization supported by the religious confessions of Russia." The new movement will function on the ideology of "neoeurasianism."

In the opinion of the movement's leader, "eurasianism is just that national idea which answers to the interests of the ethos, culture, and all peoples of Russia." Dugin labelled equally unacceptable a return to communism and nationalistic slogans. The founders of the movement consider the fathers and founders of eurasianism to be Nikolai Trubetskoy and the philosoher Lev Gumilev. As regards the sympathies of the movement in the area of foreign policy, the leader considers it necessary "to support those forces that are acting against the processes of 'American-style globalization.'"

"We maintain the conception of a multipolar world and we will oppose the unipolar globalism of USA," Alexander Dugin stressed. In his words, "eurasianism is a profoundly patriotic idea that is far from chauvinism and xenophobia." Dugin emphasized that the movement has received spiritual support from hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox church, Muslim clergy, and the Jewish community of Russia. "Muslims and Jews are not simply our partners but our brothers," he declared.

Recalling that "Preseident Vladimir Putin proclaimed Russia a eurasian state," Dugin noted that "elements of eurasianism can be found in the programs of "Unity," OVR, KPRF, LDPR, and even SPS." In his opinion "now only 'Yabloko' openly proclaims liberal Atlantic values." The "Eurasia" movement "unquestionably will support the head of state," Dugin stressed. He characterized the political position of "Eurasia" as "radical centrism."

In his turn, Mufti Farid Salman, who was at the press conference representing Mufti Talgat Tajiddin, stressed: "The 'Eurasia' movement is our response to the adherents of satanic wahhabism, which has established roots throughout the country and even in Moscow." In his opinion, "participation of Muslims in the movement is a sacred duty of patriotism and a response to the adherents of wahhabism, which discredits Islam."

Rabbi Avrom Shmulevich, representing at the press conference the leader of the hassidic Jews, Berl Lazar, reported that the participation of the Jewish population of Russia in the "Eurasia" movement is explained by the strengthening of the relations between Russia and Israel and by the fact that the idea of eurasianism finds active support in Israeli society. In Shmulevich's opinion, "eurasianism gives the possibility of preserving for all peoples, including Jews, their identity." "Jews living in Russia want for it to be a strong and free country," he concluded.

In Rabbi Shmulevich's opinion, for whom "western democratic ideology that levels out national distinctives is unacceptable," the principle of eurasianism is the most rational. "It gives the possibility of existing without denying one's own principles," the rabbi noted. "Now the experience of the ancient Mongol empire and the Khazar kaganate should be recalled."

In the words of the president of the "Eurasia" organizing committee, Petr Suslov, 52 departments of the movement are located on the territory of Russia, which already include several thousand activists. In the near future new departments of the "Eurasia" movement will be opened in Chukotka, Khabarovsk, and Vladivostok.  Dugan suggests that if by 2003 "Eurasia" acquired political strength, then it is possible the organization will take part in parliamentary elections, "but not as a separate organization but in union with centrist pro-presidential forces."

In assessing the prospects of the new movement, one should note that the practical achievement of the goals that the leadership of "Eurasia" has set will depend to a great extent on whether its leaders find a common language with the technologists of the presidential administration, who have just managed to create a strong centrist bloc in the State Duma. For now it is not quite clear just how useful to the presidential administration is the creation outside of the duma's walls of another centrist political movement loyal to Putin. This field is already occupied by Gennady Seleznev with "Russia," Aleksei Podberezkin with "Spiritual Heritage," and many other minor figures.

To be sure, in contrast with the rather nondescript prokremlin Duma "swamp" and other bureaucratic "centrist" formations, the leadership of "Eurasia" includes rather extraordinary people who have an already established ideological program.  It seems that the latest circumstances may interest the Kremlin. In the process of strengthening federal authority in the provinces, the "eurasianists" who can find a common language with the national elites of the component elements of RF may be quite pertinent. (tr. by PDS, posted 23 April 2001)

Russian Religion News Current News Items

Denial of legal registration excused

For a majority of religious organizations it went successfully
by Mikhail Tulsky
NG-religii, 11 April 2001

A full ten years ago, after the adoption of laws "On public associations" and "On freedom of religious profession" (21 October 1990) there appeared in Russia a Department of Affairs of Public and Religious Organizations (whose director was Vladimir Tomarovsky with Viktor Korolev as his assistant) instead of the Council on Religious Affairs, which had been abolished. At that time there were in Russia 5,000 registered religious organizations.

In Russian legislation there did not exist a required term for the reregistration of religious organizations. Thus reregistration occurred only after the adoption of the new law on religious organizations.  The current law "On freedom of conscience and religious associations" was adopted in September 1997. In connection with this all religious organizations that had been registered between 1991 and September 1997 were supposed to undergo reregistration. The original deadline for reregistration was 31 December 1999. But then in connection with low percentages of reregistration in some regions of RF the deadline was extended one year.

Registration in Russia

So now on 31 December 2000 the final deadline of reregistration passed. By this deadline 20,200 religious organizations had been reregistered or registered for the first time. As regards those which had not undergone reregistration, approximately 1,500 organizations were unable to receive reregistration and somewhat more (approximately 3,000) did not even try to receive it; they actually had already long since ceased their existence.

Of the number of reregistered groups, 10,913 were organizations of RPTs; 3048 were Islamic organizations (of which more than 600 are subordinate to Ravil Gainutdin and more than 2,000 to Talgat Tajuddin); 1323 were organizations of Christian of Evangelical Faith (the largest organization of Russian Pentecostals); 975, Evangelical Christians-Baptists; 612, Evangelical Christians; 563, Seventh Day Adventists; 330, Jehovah's Witnesses; 213, Lutheran; 192 Presbyterian; 86 New Apostolic church; 85, Methodists; 62, Church of the Whole Gospel; 54, Teetotaler Evangelical Christians; 33, Mormons, and 156, non-denominational Christians.

As regards other Christians, Old Believers of all types (including United Belief) have 278 registered organizations; True Orthodox church, 65; Catholics, 258; Mother of God Center, 28; and the "Church of the Last Covenant" organizations, 15.  There are 197 registered Jewish organizations (it is interesting that, according to Zinovy Kogan, KEROOR comprises 124 registered organizations and, according to Borukh Gorin, FEOR comprises 132 registered organizations, while newly registered organizations in these numbers are extremely few; either they are exaggerating the number of their organizations or about fifty registered Jewish communities are simultaneously members of KEROOR and FEOR). Also registered are 193 Buddhist and 106 Krishnaites (which is practically the only religion that now has fewer organizations than five years ago, when there were 112). Pagans number 41 registered groups (almost six times what existed five years ago), Bahai has 20, and the Unification Church (Moonies), 17.

As regards the exact proportion of reregistered organizations, this is still unknown (Ministry of Justice provided only figures for reregistered and newly registered by 1 January 2001). According to preliminary data, more than 70% of religious organizations of RF were reregistered, including about 65-75% Orthodox, 78% protestant, 60% Muslim, 80% Jewish, and 65% Buddhist organizations (although before the 1997 law religious organizations being registered were not required to declare their doctrinal or confessional affiliation and thus it is unclear how these numbers were calculated at the Center of Public Communications of the Ministry of Justice).

Reregistration in Moscow

Precise figures for results of reregistration have been provided us only in regional divisions. We would like to note that officials of the Chief Administration of the Ministry of Justice for the city of Moscw (deputy director of the department Vladimir Zhbankov and chief specialist Galina Skaukun) were especially cooperative. Thus NG-religii has the possibility as the first among religious and secular media to acquaint readers with the results of reregistration in the capital. Of 647 religious organizations that were registered before 1 October 1997, 449, or 69.4% underwent reregistration, while 198 organizations did not, although of them 90% did not even submit documents for reregistration. Thus in reality approximately 20 organizations were denied registration, which constitutes 3% of those that were supposed to undergo reregistration.

In all, since October 1997 the Department of Justice for Moscow made 248 refusals, but in an absolute majority of cases organizations that were refused resubmitted applications for reregistration taking into account the notes regarding composition of their charters. In the end these organizations were registered. Thus, for example, one Methodist organization received seven refusals before it was reregistered.

Prominent refusals of registration and reregistration

Unfortunately, in the article by Oleg Prishchepov, "Many confessions have complications with Ministry of Justice" (NGR, 17.01.2001), there were inaccuracies, especially with regard to the story of the refusal of reregistration for the Salvation Army as well as the refusal to register the "Society of atheists."

The story of the refusal of reregistration of the Salvation Army evoked a strong response in western media (CNN and BBC did special reports on this topic) as well as criticism of the Ministry of Justice on the part of Russian rights defenders. In western public opinion reregistration of religious organizations after the reports and accounts of the refusal of the Salvation Army became practically synonymous with repression and the lack of freedom of conscience in RF. However in reality the reasons for refusal of reregistration of the Salvation Army were not far-fetched since the Army itself did not try to correct its charter and reapply for reregistration with the Ministry of Justice, but it took hopeless suits to court.

A brief account of the refusal of the Salvation Army's reregistration goes like this. The main administration of the Ministry of Justice for Moscow on 16 August 1999, by letter no. 99, officially refused state reregistration of the protestant Christian evangelistic religious organization "Moscow Division of Salvation Army" because of several items in its charter that did not conform to the law. The Salvation Army did not respond in any way to this refusal, nor did it in any way prior to the expiration of the deadline for reregistration make any new attempts to acquire registration nor submit appeals to the court. It is amazing that even six months after the expiration of the deadline of reregistration the Salvation Army had undertaken nothing. But suddenly on June 2000, the Salvation Army filed a complaint in the Presnensky court which was reviewed on 5 July 2000.

"On 18 February 1999 the Moscow division of the Salvation Army submitted an application and packet of documents for its state reregistration. However  it was refused state reregistration on the basis of article 12 of the indicated law, inasmuch as the charter and other documents submitted did not conform to the requirements of the legislation of RF. In particular, it did not submit documents establishing the legal residence on the territory of RF of members of the Financial Council of the religious association who were foreign citizens, and the charter contains internal contradictions. Thus, p. 4/1 states that the supreme organizatin of the division is the International Religious Organization of the Salvation Army, and p. l/2 states that the Moscow division of the Salvation Army acts autonomously, that is, exists independently and is not a part of a centralized organization; p. 1/2 of the charter states that the division is a religious organization, and p. 4/2, that it is a charitable organization. Besides this, it is unclear from the charter what are the religious beliefs of members of the division, since p. 3 and p. 6/1 speak of the faith of the Salvation Army, p. 1/3 of the Christian faith, and the denomination of the division is protestant. On the basis of the above cited, the association is refused state reregistration on a legal basis."

After refusal in the Presnensky court representatives of the Salvation Army appealed to the Moscow city court, where it also received a denial on 28 December 2000. At the same time representatives of the Army did not make a single attempt to correct the mistakes in the charter and to resubmit the documents for reregistration. On the contrary, they hired English attorneys to whom, according to their statements, they paid 80,000 pounds sterling.  As a result, until now the Salvation Army has not managed to get registration in Moscow. At the same time the federal Ministry of Justice registered on 22 February 2001 the centralized organization of the Salvation Army. So it is hardly justified to speak of the violation of the principles of freedom of conscience in Russia. Similar bases for refusal of reregistration pertained to the Society of Atheists.

In all, in Moscow six religious organizations took the chief administration of Moscow to court. Besides the Salvation Army were the parish of the Icon of the Mother of God of the Orthodox Catholic Church, the congregation of the "Joyful Life in Jesus" Methodist church, the Moscow society of Tat [Mountain] Jews, the centralized organization of the Russian Orthodox Brotherhood, and the "Risaliat" society of Muslims. The court denied satisfaction of their complaints for all organizations, but the first three corrected their documents and when they resubmitted their applications they received positive results. The centralized organization of the Orthodox brotherhood and Risaliat have remained unregistered until now.

The following is a list of the Moscow religious organizations that were reregistered by 1 January 2001, according to data of the chief administration Ministry of Justice for Moscow (numbers in parentheses indicate refusals):

Russian Orthodox church, 201 (29)
True Orthodox church, 9 (4)
Ukrainian Orthodox church (Kiev patriarchate), 1 (0)
Russian Orthodox Old Believer church, 3 (0)
Ancient Orthodox church, 2 (3)
Roman Catholic church, 7 (6)
Armenian Apostolic church, 2 (1)
Islam, 4 (17)
Buddhists, 10 (9)
Jewish, 5 (2)
Evangelical Christians-Baptists, 25 (16)
Evangelical Christians, 65 (53)
Evangelical Christians in Apostolic Spirit, 1 (1)
Christians of Evangelical Faith, 43 (19)
Charismatic churches, 1 (1)
Full-Gospel church, 1 (1)
Teetotaler Evangelical Christians, 1 (1)
Seventh-Day Adventist, 11 (12)
Evangelical Lutheran church, 4 (7)
Methodist church, 13 (23)
Reform church, 1 (1)
Presbyterian church, 28 (11)
Anglican church, 1 (2)
Jehovah's Witnesses, 0 (4)
Salvation Army, 0 (2)
Church of the Sovereign Mother of God (Mother of God Center), 1 (1)
Molokans, 1 (2)
Quakers, 1 (0)
Church of Christ, 0 (2)
Jews for Jesus, 1 (0)
Krishna Consciousness, 3 (4)
Bahai, 1 (3)
Nestorian (Assyrian church), 1 (1)
Sikhs, 1 (1)
Others, 0 (9) (note: most of these refusals were Scientology)
Total, 449 (248)
(tr. by PDS, posted 22 April 2001)

Russian Religion News Current News Items


Jehovah's Witnesses; Eurasia movement; Ukraine

NTV, 21 April 2001

In Rostov the Great (Rostov Velikyi) a protest action against the spread of "totalitarian sects" in the city has taken place. The occasion for it were the plans of the local Jehovah's Witnesses organization to build their own religious center in Rostov the Great.

The day before this event the leadership of the municipal district, taking into account public opinion, wrote a declaration rescinding permission for the construction of a Jehovist center, which already had been given. However the protest action, in the form of pickets, organized by Rostov artist Anatoly Zaitsev, still was held.

Besides Rostov residents, participants in the protests included representatives of cossack organizations from Moscow, members of the Pereslavl department of the national patriotic Pamiat front, and the Gavrialov-Yamskoe department of the Russian National Unity. The leitmotif of all speeches was the idea that construction of such churches "is impermissible on Orthodox land."

The culmination of the protest action was a procession of its participants about the city and the placement of an Orthodox cross on the site of the proposed construction of the Jehovah's Witnesses religious center. According to the designs of the picketers, on this site should be built a chapel as "a symbol of the triumph of Orthodoxy over heresy." (tr. by PDS, posted 21 April, 2001)


A new Russia-wide political public movement called "Eurasia" [Evraziia] will be formed on Saturday, 21 April, at a founding congress in Moscow. This was reported to RIA "Novosti" by the chairman of the organizational commitee of the congress, the philosopher and geopolitician Alexander Dugin. The new movement will primarily be a "world view" movement and operate on a "neoeurasian" ideology.

Dugin noted that departments of "Eurasia" already are operating in 52 regions and the number of movement activists excedes 2,000.  "We advocate the conception of a multipolar world and we will oppose unipolar globalism of USA," Dugin stressed.  In his words, "Eurasianism is a profoundly patriotic idea that is far from chauvinism and xenophobia."

Dugin emphasized that religious support for the movement has been shown by hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox church, the Muslim clergy, and the Jewish community of Russia. "Muslims and Jews are not simply our partners but our brothers," he declared.

Recalling that "President Vladimir Putin has proclaimed Russia a Eurasian state," Dugin noted that "elements of Eurasianism can be found in programs of "Unity," OVR, KPRF, LDPR, and even SPS and now only "Yabloko" openly proclaims liberal, Atlantic values."

The Eurasia movement "will unquestionably support the head of state," Dugin stressed. He characterized the political position of Eurasia as "radical centrism." (tr. by PDS, posted 21 April 2001)

by Dmitry Safonov, 19 April 2001

"Metropolitan" Mefody, the head of the schismatic "Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox church" (UAPTs) stated to reporters that "today there are two large imperial churches, the Catholic and Muscovite; their interests often conflict and they are conducting a 'war' among themselves," the "Blagovest-info" news agency reports. "And to them we are 'small change,' since they are not interested in the appearance of a strong Ukrainian church," Mefody said. It is necessary for Ukraine that its people be united around a strong, single Orthodox church, the head of UAPTs thinks.

"Metropolitan" Mefody suggests that Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma "is doing everything in order to unite" the Orthodox confessions of the country. "However it could be a long time before this happens," he said, inasmuch as "the Ukrainian churches are so divided." The head of UAPTs reported that he does not intend to participate in a possible session of the council of churches with the Roman pope during the pontiff's visit to Ukraine in June of this year. He based such a decision on the fact that of all Orthodox churches existing in Ukraine, the Roman curia recognizes only the Russian Orthodox church of the Moscow patriarchate.

UAPTs was founded during the time of the rule of Petliura in 1921 and its clergy was composed of a bunch of unfrocked priests who, as a rule, had been expelled from RPTs for violation of church discipline. The small UAPTs, which was not supported by the Orthodox people, was similar to the renovationist movement that was inspired by the bolsheviks, and the demands of its members, besides "autonomy," amounted to a radical reformation. In the 1920s UAPTs was supported by the soviet regime against the Russian Orthodox church (it is significant that the first victim of the bolsheviks was the Kievan Metropolitan St. Vladimir Bogoiavlensky, a convinced proponent of a united Russian church and Russia). Subsequently UAPTs was forced to go underground and it was revived during the Nazis' occupation, with their support, and then its leadership emigrated to USA and Canada. UAPTs has not been recognized by a single Orthodox church in the world.

In 1990 the attempt of UAPTs to return to Ukraine began.  The "patriarch" Mstislav Skrypnik, a former secretary of Petliura, arrived in Lvov and Kiev. As a result, around 1,000 parishes of UAPTs were registered. In 1992, when Kievan Metropolitan Filaret went into schism, he tried to become head of the autocephalous movement, registering a new confession, "Ukrainian Orthodox church of the Kievan patriarchate." Under pressure from politicians sympathizing with Filaret, Mstislav signed an agreement for unifying UAPTs to the "Kievan patriarchate," but soon he died.

A famous dissident, Vladimir Romaniuk, was elected "patriarch" of Kiev, although he was a "stalking horse" for Filaret, who really administered the KP. This odious figure did not attract the intellectual stratum of UAPTs and after Mstislav's death a large portion of the "episcopate" of UAPTs announced their leaving the "Kievan patriarchate." As a result, a Lvov priest Vasily Yarem (as monk known as Dimitry) was elected "patriarch of UAPTs," and after his death in 2000 UAPTs was headed by "Metropolitan" Mefody.

Besides him the only noteworthy figure in UAPTs is the Kharkov "bishop" Igor Isichenko, who previously was a teacher on the philology faculty of Kharkov University. At the present time UAPTs has around 1,000 parishes, since in 1998 around 500 parishes went over to Filaret, and UAPTs remains a marginal grouping. Growth in the number of communities is not being observed and adherents of UAPTs, in the main, live only in Ivano-Frankovsk, Lvov, and Ternopol provinces.  (tr. by PDS, posted 21 April 2001)

Russian Religion News Current News Items

If material is quoted, please give credit to the publication from which it came.
It is not necessary to credit this Web page. If material is transmitted electronically, please include reference to the URL,