Page 1 of 2

Collateral Consequences and Collateral Harm: The COVID-19 Pandemic as a Catalyst for Equitable Reintegration Reform

Collateral consequences are sanctions imposed upon an individual outside of the realm of formal sentencing associated with criminal punishment. These consequences often have far more severe, long-lasting, and wide-ranging impacts than direct forms of punishment. The myriad of legal, regulatory, and informal stigma-related repercussions of having a criminal record frequently serve to preclude ex-offenders from accessing a breadth of rights, opportunities, and resources; including those related to employment, housing, education, healthcare, voting, and receiving public benefits. 

In addition to directly harming justice-involved individuals themselves, collateral consequences have been found to have large aggregate and intergenerational impacts on the families and communities that surround these individuals. As a result, affected communities often experience deeply entrenched socioeconomic oppression, higher rates of homelessness and health complications, and an increased likelihood of future criminal justice involvement. Because of stark racial and socioeconomic disparities that exist both within and outside of the criminal justice system, the burdensome effects of collateral consequences are disproportionately felt by low-income communities and communities of color.  

The COVID-19 pandemic both magnified and illuminated the deadly and far-reaching effects that criminal justice involvement and the collateral consequences that follow have on ex-offenders and their communities, especially those that have historically been the most severely affected by these disadvantages. Consequently, the pandemic demonstrated an urgent need for relief from the heavy burden of having a criminal record—specifically, relief that is broadly available, widely accessible, and effective for all ex-offenders. 

Measures intended to ease the burden of having a criminal record have picked up steam in legislatures across the country over the last several years—a trend that will undoubtedly continue as the detrimental effects of collateral consequences continue to become more visible to the general public. However, there are concerns that many of these enacted and proposed mechanisms may be less accessible or helpful to certain groups of ex-offenders; which can have the effect of exacerbating existing socioeconomic and racial inequities. It is critical that future efforts to mitigate the oppressive effects of collateral consequences sufficiently account for the many structural, systemic, and multidimensional race and class inequities that are inextricably intertwined with the American criminal justice system and frequently impact reintegration outcomes. As part of its response to the pandemic, the federal government should enact an expungement statute that places a distinct focus on equity. Reintegration measures that are equitably available and effective benefit not only those individuals with criminal records, but all of society, which is particularly important as the nation begins to rebuild in the wake of the current public health and economic crises.

Protecting Florida’s LGBTQ+ Youth by Prohibiting the Use of Conversion Therapy

Over the last few decades, the law has come a long way in recognizing the rights of individuals within the LGBTQ+ community. This shift mirrors the changing views of both medical professionals and society. However, one subgroup of the LGBTQ+ community has been largely ignored when it comes to recognition and protection of their legal rights—LGBTQ+ youth. While more and more young people have been comfortable openly identifying themselves as members of the LGBTQ+ community, this group is still at greater risk of experiencing homelessness, mental health issues, and involvement with the juvenile justice and welfare systems than their cis-gender and heterosexual peers.

This Article examines the legal battle over the use of conversion therapy on minors, a practice aimed at changing one’s sexual orientation or gender identify, in Florida and the Eleventh Circuit. The author analyzes how the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals incorrectly concluded that local prohibitions on conversion therapy violate the Constitution, as well as addresses the importance of a prohibition on conversion therapy for minors. Finally, the author proposes state legislative action necessary to provide a safer and more inclusive environment for LGBTQ+ youth in Florida.

“You Want to Put that Where?” A Discussion of the Interplay Between Local Zoning Control and Effective Prohibition Under the Telecom Act of 1996

The authors tackle the incongruous and often nebulous standards for effective prohibition of cellular wireless service under federal law. They first discuss the origins of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 and the evolution of effective prohibition from the 90s to the modern day. This Article then discusses the legal theory behind the predominant tests employed in effective prohibition analysis and suggests that a national standard allowing wireless carriers to solve gaps in service is necessary to meet the public demand for ubiquitous wireless connectivity. Finally, this Article surveys the effective prohibition jurisprudence at the district level within the 11th Circuit and postulates as to which test the 11th Circuit would employ once an effective prohibition case comes before its bench.

“A Public Office is a Public Trust” Examination of the Implementation of Constitutional Amendments Governing the Abuse of Public Offices

This Article explores the adoption and implementation of Florida’s Constitutional Amendments governing lobbying and abuse of power.  The changes enacted by Florida voters should act as a pole-star for both guiding public officials in their duties and the legislature’s thoughtful examination of previously recommended changes to Florida’s statutory ethics laws. New lobbying restrictions expand the scope and length of prohibitions on activities after leaving office, and the abuse of power provisions rely on established bodies of law for clarification. However, the legislature has been slow to respond to recommended reforms of State ethics laws, and decades have passed without following reports and recommendations from statewide grand jury investigations or the adoption of more significant deterrents for violations of Chapter 112, Florida Statutes.  The new constitutional provisions are subject to the penalties enacted by the legislature. Investigations and administrative proceedings remain under the jurisdiction of the Florida Commission on Ethics


The Roberts Court has generated a remarkable corpus of class action jurisprudence. From Shady Grove Orthopedic Associates, P.A. v. Allstate Insurance Co. in 2010 through TransUnion LLC v. Ramirez in 2021, it has issued more than two dozen class action decisions. The goal of this Article is not to catalogue this activity, but to focus on decisions in three specific areas: (1) class certification practice under Rule 23, (2) “fraud on the market” securities fraud litigation, and (3) the intersection of class practice and justiciability. I choose them because they show different modes of engagement by the Court: revolution, evolution, and raising topics that will require future attention.

Regarding class certification practice, the Roberts Court has been revolutionary, mandating notable procedural changes—not by amendment of Federal Rule 23, but by interpretation of that provision. In the securities class area, in contrast, the Court has issued a series of evolutionary decisions that culminated in Goldman Sachs Group, Inc. v. Arkansas Teacher Retirement System in 2021. That case largely closed the circle on issues left open in earlier cases. In the third area, the Court has dipped its toe in the water but not provided guidance. With regard to justiciability and class litigation, the Court has a deal of work to do.


In 1970, then-Chief Justice Burger gave the inaugural Year-End Report on the Federal Judiciary as an address to the American Bar Association. Each year since, the Chief Justice has released a Year-End Report. Civil procedure has frequently been a focus: diversity jurisdiction, the rulemaking process, changes to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, and the role of district judges in civil litigation have all been highlighted in various Reports. This Article highlights the trend of civil procedure topics in the Year-End Reports, with a special emphasis on Chief Justice Roberts’ 2015 Report.


John G. Roberts, Jr. was confirmed as Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in September 2005. Since then, there have been two major changes in the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) involving losses of discoverable electronically stored information (ESI). These changes address the duties of preserving some ESI for federal civil litigation and the sanctions available for preservation failures. The changes were embodied in FRCP 37, once in 2006 and once in 2015. The current Rule 37(e) provisions have always been accompanied by other FRCP discovery provisions on ESI, with some predating any version of Rule 37(e). To date, Congress has remained quiet on lost ESI in federal civil actions.

This Article reviews the history behind, as well as the current, FRCP provisions on ESI, particularly the Rule 37(e) changes. It also reviews the ESI changes proposed to Rule 37 in 2013 that were not adopted. These reviews will focus on how the FRCP has addressed and now addresses lost discoverable ESI.

These reviews are accompanied by an examination of state civil procedure laws on pre-suit and post-suit ESI losses. State laws are examined as they suggest potential FRCP reforms. A brief survey of state spoliation claims, whether in tort, contract, or otherwise, follows because these claims can be pursued in federal courts for either pre-suit or post-suit ESI losses impacting pending civil actions.

All this then serves as the basis for exploring significant issues on lost ESI in federal civil actions. Such issues include the uncertainties arising from the FRCP distinctions between ESI and non-ESI, as well as between varying forms of ESI; the challenges in pursuing state spoliation claims in related federal civil actions; and the problems arising when discoverable ESI is lost by nonparties. The explorations will lead to some tentative thoughts on FRCP reforms involving lost ESI that would prompt greater justice, efficiency, and economy, per the FRCP 1 mandate. Possible new approaches include FRCP amendments broadening the opportunities for pre-suit ESI discovery and creating new avenues for pre-suit protective orders on behalf of those possessing or controlling relevant ESI, perhaps modeled on the recent Arizona Civil Procedure Rule 45.2.


Climate change has become one of the most pressing issues of the twenty-first century, endangering not only countless animals and ecosystems, but the lives of thousands of individuals—and Florida is on the front lines of this crisis. The scientific community has come to a consensus that humans are to blame for the calamity; even though hundreds of millions of dollars have already been lost to the effects of climate change, those who have been affected have not been able to find redress or relief. When refusing to offer such redress, most courts claimed these individuals were barred by the doctrine of standing. This Article explores the history of Article III standing and how it has been shaped specifically around environmental cases. It outlines how courts do have the power to hear cases regarding climate change and, finally, this Article explains the importance of having the judicial system hear such cases, as opposed to relying on the other two branches of government to solve this crisis.


Over the past decade, there has been an increased social awareness regarding transgender issues. This has led to the transgender community achieving progress in many aspects of everyday life. However, one area in which transgender persons continue to struggle is behind bars. Medical treatment for incarcerated transgender persons has become a controversial topic both in public opinion and the law.

This Article will trace the journey of Reiyn Keohane, a transgender inmate in the Florida prison system, from her arrest to her challenge against the Florida Department of Correction’s hormone treatment and social transitioning policies. For a brief moment in time, Keohane won a major victory for transgender inmates when the trial court held that both policies were unconstitutional. This victory was short lived however, as the Eleventh Circuit Court of Appeals reversed that decision in Keohane v. Florida Department of Corrections Secretary. The author takes a critical look at the Eleventh Circuit’s opinion, specifically its analysis regarding mootness and cruel and unusual punishment.

In the end, the author suggests that the Eleventh Circuit may have gotten it wrong and highlights how there is now a split among circuits regarding what the Constitution demands when it comes to medical treatment for transgender inmates.


The Supreme Court’s interest in personal jurisdiction has waxed and waned since the iconic International Shoe Co. v. Washington, cycling between thirteen-year spurts of jurisdictional pronouncements followed by two decades of silence. From International Shoe in 1945 to Hanson v. Denckla in 1958, the Supreme Court issued six personal jurisdiction decisions that developed the minimum contacts analysis under the Due Process Clause. The Court then took an almost twenty-year break before returning to the adjudicative jurisdictional fray in another thirteen-year stint from 1977 to 1990, this time resolving ten personal jurisdiction cases. After failing to coalesce around a majority opinion in its last two attempts, the Supreme Court withdrew again from the field, leaving the lower federal and state courts to their own devices for slightly more than twenty years, until the Roberts Court re-engaged with personal jurisdiction a decade ago.

Page 1 of 2